Heather Grabbe holds a PhD from Birmingham University and a BA and MA from Oxford University. Before joining the European Commission, Grabbe was deputy director of the Centre for European Reform, a London-based think-tank, where she published widely on EU enlargement and other European issues. From 2004–2009 she was senior advisor to European Commissioner for Enlargement Olli Rehn, responsible in his cabinet for the Balkans and Turkey. Her academic career includes teaching at the London School of Economics, and research at Oxford and Birmingham universities, the Royal Institute for International Affairs (Chatham House, London) and the European University Institute (Florence). Grabbe is currently director of the Open Society Institute–Brussels and director of EU affairs for the Soros network.